Rise of Bonapartism (2)
Behind the The rise and the srenghtening of Bonapartism after the Napoleonic wars in europe lay major changes and radical innovation and the major and determinant fact the emergence of the working-xclass as an indepdendent and self-concious force in politics in Britina and in France. urban discontent was universal in the West a proletarian and socialist movement was chiefly visible and palpable in the countries biritna and France because of Jacobinism and babouvism France possessed the was more predisposed and rmorre ready for revolution working class or urban revolution and socialism appeared very real dangers in Western Europe. Radical democracy had made major advances both in the USA Under President Andrew Jackson(1829-37) as in Europe where the European revolution rehained its momentum. For the mass of the common people the problem pushed them inevitably towards social revolution. their hatred of the rich and the greta gave their desperation eyes and a purpsoe were concious of taht purpose. the greta awakening provoked by the jacobin model had taught them that common men. this was the “spectre of communism” which haunted Europe the fear of “teh proletariat” which affected not merely with the revolution which broke out in the firts months of 1848 was not a social revoltuion merely that it involved and mobilized all social classes. it was the rising of the labouring poor.
In 1848, Revolution triumphed In France and the republic was proclamied on 24 February. during the firts months of the springtilme of people all governements were swept away or reduced to impotence. In France where the revolution succeded rapidly in France the firts Landmark of conservative revival was the lecetion of April in which universal suffarge teh second Landmark was the isolation and defeta of the revolutionary workers in paris defeated in the June insurrection where the urban plebeians or more the enw proletarians came within the ardius of jacobin, socialist or democratic republcan idleogy they became a political force at least as rioters.
As Thermidorean reaction during the French revolution and its subsequent napoloenic miliatry dictatorship which had destroyed the Jacobin Revolution and its ideals, the dream of equality liberty and fraternity, Louis Napoleon coup d’état of dcemeber 1851 played the same role than that of his illustrous uncle by destroying the dream of popualr democracy and the people rising to shake off oppression after 1848 Revolution in franxce and in Europe too. The revolution of 1848 in France was not merely a brief historical episode without consequence. it was, like the jacobinism, the achievment of real popualr democracy with large popualr political participation by contrast with the cosntitutional monarchy where barriers and institutional hurdles had been erceted based on property or educational quallifications for the voters and where there wasthere was only 168 000 voters. the Jacobin experience servend as set of models and patetrs for popualr upheavals during the post-napoleonic period in europe and over the world.